Action by individuals
People should also be advised to minimise the stress in their lives for three reasons. Firstly, stress is often associated with an increase in health-damaging behaviours. It is possible that people under stress might smoke more, drink more alcohol, chew khat, indulge in comfort eating and neglect any potentially protective physical activity – all of which increase their risk of developing a CVD. Secondly, there may be direct links between physiological changes that are associated with stress, such as the release of certain hormones – adrenalin and corticosteroids, for example – that might directly affect the heart and the arteries that bring oxygen to the heart muscle. Thirdly, people under stress might neglect to seek appropriate medical attention. Understanding the above will help you in resolving your clients' cardiovascular problems.