Knowing the HIV status of a pregnant woman is the cornerstone of PMTCT. You will recall from Study Session 24 that those about to be tested for HIV need to be offered appropriate pre-test education and counselling and this particularly applies to pregnant women. There are two approaches to HIV testing. Both provide information to the client about HIV, and the risks and benefits of testing in a language that is easily understood. However, the two approaches differ in the process through which consent by the client is obtained. These are known as 'opt-in' and 'opt-out' approaches.