Prevention of faeco-oral transmission
Give clear health education messages in ways that motivate people in your community to undertake the prevention and control measures described below. Each measure has been given a distinguishing letter, so you can relate it to the questions that follow the descriptions.
Ways to prevent faecal contamination of hands
|A||Wash hands with soap and clean water:|
|A1||After defaecation, or cleaning the bottom of a child, or changing an infant's nappy (diaper).|
|A2||After working with soil, or after children have been playing on soil, where there has been open defaecation by people or animals.|
|A3||Before preparing food or eating.|
|B||Cut fingernails and avoid putting fingers into the mouth.|
Ways to prevent contamination from unsafe food
|C||Prepare and eat food safely:|
|C1||Observe thorough hand hygiene before and during any contact with food|
|C2||Ensure that all utensils are completely clean; allow them to 'air dry' after washing (don't wipe with a cloth)|
|C3||Wash raw vegetables and fruits thoroughly in clean water|
|C4||Cook other food items thoroughly, particularly meat and fish|
|C5||Eat cooked food while it is hot and reheat food thoroughly if it has cooled|
|C6||Cover food so it cannot be exposed to flies.|
|D||Promote exclusive breastfeeding of infants under six months old:|
|D1||If babies or young children are fed animal milk or formula, the bottle and teat, or cup and spoon, should be thoroughly washed with clean water and soap before every feed|
|D2||Animal milk should be boiled and cooled before drinking|
|D3||Formula milk should be mixed with boiled cooled water.|
|E1||Cover food to prevent contamination by flies|
|E2||Dispose of faeces and other wastes safely, so flies cannot land on sewage.|
Ways to prevent contamination from unsafe water
|F||Protect water sources from contamination with faeces:|
|F1||Use a properly constructed latrine and safe disposal of faeces|
|F2||Avoid open defaecation in the fields (Figure 32.4)|
|F3||Avoid direct contact of hands with drinking water|
|F4||Install protected water sources, such as covered wells with pumps|
|G||Boil water before drinking, or using in preparation of food or fluids|
|H||Use clean drinking cups and clean covered containers for storing water.|
Which of the measures described above will help to prevent the transmission of infectious agents by flies? Use the letters assigned to each measure to indicate your answers.
Measures C6, E1, E2, F1 and F2 will all reduce the risk of faeco-oral diseases transmitted by flies.
Which of the measures described above are most important when preparing milk for feeding to young children?
Measures A1, A2, A3, B, C1, C2, D1, D2, D3, G and H.