Prevention of faeco-oral transmission

Give clear health education messages in ways that motivate people in your community to undertake the prevention and control measures described below. Each measure has been given a distinguishing letter, so you can relate it to the questions that follow the descriptions.

Ways to prevent faecal contamination of hands

A Wash hands with soap and clean water:
A1 After defaecation, or cleaning the bottom of a child, or changing an infant's nappy (diaper).
A2 After working with soil, or after children have been playing on soil, where there has been open defaecation by people or animals.
A3 Before preparing food or eating.
B Cut fingernails and avoid putting fingers into the mouth.

Ways to prevent contamination from unsafe food

C Prepare and eat food safely:
C1 Observe thorough hand hygiene before and during any contact with food
C2 Ensure that all utensils are completely clean; allow them to 'air dry' after washing (don't wipe with a cloth)
C3 Wash raw vegetables and fruits thoroughly in clean water
C4 Cook other food items thoroughly, particularly meat and fish
C5 Eat cooked food while it is hot and reheat food thoroughly if it has cooled
C6 Cover food so it cannot be exposed to flies.
D Promote exclusive breastfeeding of infants under six months old:
D1 If babies or young children are fed animal milk or formula, the bottle and teat, or cup and spoon, should be thoroughly washed with clean water and soap before every feed
D2 Animal milk should be boiled and cooled before drinking
D3 Formula milk should be mixed with boiled cooled water.
E Control flies:
E1 Cover food to prevent contamination by flies
E2 Dispose of faeces and other wastes safely, so flies cannot land on sewage.

Ways to prevent contamination from unsafe water

F Protect water sources from contamination with faeces:
F1 Use a properly constructed latrine and safe disposal of faeces
F2 Avoid open defaecation in the fields (Figure 32.4)
F3 Avoid direct contact of hands with drinking water
F4 Install protected water sources, such as covered wells with pumps
G Boil water before drinking, or using in preparation of food or fluids
H Use clean drinking cups and clean covered containers for storing water.

Sign celebrating the achievement of Fura in the SNNPR

Figure 32.4 Sign celebrating the achievement of Fura in the Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region (SNNPR) of Ethiopia as the first 'open-defaecation free' village in the region. All households have a latrine. (Photo: accessed from http://www.susana.org/docs_ccbk/susana_download/2-297-open-defecation-free-environment-ethiopia-en.pdf)

Which of the measures described above will help to prevent the transmission of infectious agents by flies? Use the letters assigned to each measure to indicate your answers.

Show answer

Measures C6, E1, E2, F1 and F2 will all reduce the risk of faeco-oral diseases transmitted by flies.

Which of the measures described above are most important when preparing milk for feeding to young children?

Show answer

Measures A1, A2, A3, B, C1, C2, D1, D2, D3, G and H.

آخری ترمیم: بدھ, 25 جون 2014, 6:14 ش