Modes of transmission of trachoma
The bacteria that cause trachoma are transmitted mainly by contact with the discharge (pus) coming from an infected person's eyes. Note that direct transmission from one person's eyes to the eyes of another person is unusual, but direct mother-to-newborn transmission can occur during birth if the mother has Chlamydia bacteria in her birth canal. These bacteria can live in the genitals of males and females, causing a sexually transmitted infection, which can get into the eyes of the baby as it is born. This is why tetracycline eye ointment (1%) is applied to the eyes of all babies as part of routine newborn care.
Routine newborn care is described in the Modules on Postnatal Care and Integrated Management of Newborn and Childhood Illness (IMNCI)..
However, the most common routes by which Chlamydia bacteria get into the eyes and cause trachoma are through:
- Flies landing on the face of an infected person and then carrying the infected discharge to another person's face (Figure 39.2a).
- An infected person touching his/her eyes and then touching another person on the face or directly on their eyes (Figure 39.2b).
- Clothing used to wipe infected eyes (Figure 39.2c), and then contaminating the eyes of another person, for example if it is used as a towel.
Based on your study of earlier parts of this Module, the infectious agents of which other diseases may be transmitted by house flies?
The infectious agents causing diarrhoeal diseases, such as dysentery and acute watery diarrhoea, can be transmitted by flies (Study Sessions 32 and 33).