In this Study Session, you have learned that:

  • Protected water sources (often called ‘improved’ water sources) are those that have barriers against contaminants and provide water that is safe to drink.
  • The drinking water ladder describes the steps in improvement of quality of water supply.
  • In Ethiopia in 2012, protected water sources supplied 97% of the water to urban populations, and 42% of the water to rural populations.
  • Urban areas can obtain water supplies from groundwater, surface water and rainwater.
  • Groundwater sources such as shallow wells, deep wells (boreholes) and springs should be protected against contamination by animals and surface run-off.
  • Disinfection of the equipment at wells should be undertaken regularly.
  • Surface waters are more prone to contamination than groundwater, and usually require treatment.
  • Rainwater has several advantages as a water source.
  • New water source development has to consider the capacity of the new source to supply water for a considerable time, and take into account factors such as raw water quality, seasonal variation, distance from consumers, cost, environmental impact and sustainability.

Last modified: Tuesday, 2 August 2016, 1:47 AM