The sustainability of a water distribution and supply system will be improved if pipes are made of robust, long-lasting material. The laying of the pipes has to conform with good civil engineering practice so that leaks are prevented. The pipes should not be laid where excessive pressure or vibration from above (such as from road traffic) is present. Maintenance of the distribution system is paramount, with proactive leakage control, and repair and replacement of pipes, etc. when appropriate. The sustainability of the whole water supply system can be improved if leakage is minimised and illegal connections are eliminated. Sustainability will also be enhanced if the volume of potable water used for purposes other than personal consumption is minimised. You will learn about ways of using less water in Study Session 11.