Safe and reliable drinking water has always played a prominent role in the development of human civilisation. Water was, and continues to be, a basic necessity of human survival. However, access to safe, adequate and reliable water is not always present. There may be emergencies in the water supply system that result in a break in supply. Distribution of fresh water can also be a challenge when natural disasters (such as droughts, floods, earthquakes, etc.) or accidents occur, or during catastrophes caused by human actions such as wars, when a displaced population has to be supplied with water. You will look at examples of these situations in this study session and learn about water supply during emergencies in urban areas, and how emergency water supplies can be set up for populations that have been displaced.