This Module, Urban WASH: Working with People, was prepared by a team of Ethiopian authors with support from experts in blended learning pedagogy at The Open University UK. It was first published in 2016. 

The contributors of original material are:

Tesfay Alemseged, Ethiopian Institute of Water Resources

Araya Mengistu, SNV Netherlands Development Organisation

Wossen Assefa, SNV Netherlands Development Organisation

The Academic Editors of Urban WASH: Working with People are Dr Janet Haresnape, Staff Tutor in the Faculty of Science, and Pam Furniss, Senior Lecturer in Environmental Systems in the Faculty of Mathematics, Computing and Technology, The Open University UK.

Additional thanks to:

Michele Paba, Urban WASH Specialist, UNICEF Ethiopia

Rahel Kaba, Urban WASH Specialist, UNICEF Ethiopia

Tamene Gossa, Urban WASH Specialist, UNICEF Ethiopia

Dr Sam Godfrey, Chief of WASH, UNICEF Ethiopia

Dereje Alemu, WASH Operations Director, World Vision Ethiopia

Felipe Chaparro, Team Leader Urban WASH Project, World Vision Ethiopia

Nicholas Owuor, Team Leader Urban WASH Project, World Vision Ethiopia

Ellen Scott, OpenWASH Project Manager

Gail Vardy, OpenWASH Project Coordinator

Hannah Juma, OpenWASH Curriculum Manager

This Module should be cited as follows:

OpenWASH (2016) Urban WASH: Working with People, The Open University UK/World Vision Ethiopia/UNICEF.

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated below, this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike licence ( The material acknowledged below is Proprietary and used under licence for this project, and not subject to the Creative Commons Licence. This means that this material may only be used unadapted within the OpenWASH project and not in any subsequent OER versions.

We have used some images of products for illustrative purposes only. The Open University is not endorsing or recommending such branded products but illustrating what may be available and what they achieve. There are other brands available other than those illustrated.

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce the material in this unit:

Cover image: Tesfay Alemseged.

Figure 1.1: © Kehitys Lehti in Flickr,; Figure 1.2: © Furyk in Flickr,; Figure 1.3: Canadian Urban Institute, Patrick Dubuc in Flickr,; Figure 1.4: IDRC/Joan Baxter,; Figure 1.5:; Figure 1.6: WaterAid/Guilhem Alandry,; Figure 1.7: Janet Haresnape; Figure 1.8: Melissa Price.

Figures 2.1–2.6 and 2.8: Janet Haresnape; Figure 2.7:; Table 2.1: Araya Mengistu.

Figure 3.1: © Stefan Garg in Flickr,; Figure 3.2: UNICEF Ethiopia in Flickr,,; Figure 3.3: adapted from Joint Monitoring Programme data, 2014,; Figure 3.4: adapted from UNICEF (2014) UNICEF Sanitation Priority Country Factsheet 2014 Ethiopia,; Figures 3.5 and 3.6: © Magnus Franklin in Flickr,; Table 3.1: Araya Mengistu .

Figure 4.1: Nena Terrell, USAID Ethiopia in Flickr,; Figures 4.2–4.4: Tesfay Alemseged; Figure 4.5: derived from Department for International Development, UK(DfID) (2003) Tools for Development: A Handbook for Those Engaged in Development Activity,

Figures 5.1 and 5.2: Tesfay Alemseged; Figure 5.3: UNICEF Ethiopia in Flickr,,; Figures 5.4 and 5.5: Janet Haresnape.

Figure 6.1: Al and Maries in Flickr,; Figure 6.2: Janet Haresnape; Figure 6.3: adapted from; Figures 6.4 and 6.5: Tesfay Alemseged; Tables 6.1 and 6.2:

Figure 7.1: UNICEF Ethiopia/Indrias Getachew,,,; Figure 7.2: Pam Furniss; Figure 7.3: AMREF/Sophie Zeegers,,,; Figure 7.4: © Nicholas Watson,,; Figures 7.5 and 7.6: UNICEF Ethiopia in Flickr,,; Figure 7.7: Janet Haresnape; Figure 7.8: © Carrie Teicher,,

Figure 8.1: adapted from Devine, J. (2009) Introducing SaniFOAM: A Framework to Analyse Sanitation Behaviours,; Figure 8.2: SOS Children’s Villages,,; Figures 8.3 and 8.4: UNICEF Ethiopia in Flickr,,; Figure 8.5 and 8.6: Anna Childs; Figure 8.7: Pam Furniss; Figure 8.8: © Janet Haresnape,,

Figure 9.1: Sjors 737 in; Figures 9.2 and 9.9: © Ali Wyllie,,; Figures 9.3 and 9.5: UNICEF Ethiopia in Flickr,,; Figure 9.4: Addis Continental Institute of Public Health Students presentation, 2010,,; Figure 9.6: Janet Haresnape; Figure 9.7: WaterAid/Caroline Irby,,,; Figure 9.8: AMREF,,,

Figures 10.1, 10.2, 10.4, 10.7 and 10.8: Janet Haresnape; Figure 10.3:; Figure 10.5: Giacomo Pirozzi,; Figure 10.6: Yonas Bogale, IFPRI in Flickr,,; Figure 10.9: Richard Adam; Figure 10.10: WaterAid in Ethiopia,,,; Table 10.1: Wossen Assefa .

Figures 11.1–11.5: Tesfay Alemseged.

Figure 12.1: Tesfay Alemseged; Figures 12.2 and 12.4–12.6: UNICEF Ethiopia in Flickr,,; Figure 12.3: Janet Haresnape.

Figures 13.1 and 13.6: Janet Haresnape; Figures 13.2 and 13.5: UNICEF Ethiopia in Flickr,,; Figure 13.3: Canadian Urban Institute in Flickr,; Figure 13.4: Araya Mengistu; Tables 13.1 and 13.2: Araya Mengistu.

Figures 14.1, 14.2, 14.4 and 14.8: UNICEF Ethiopia in Flickr,,; Figure 14.3:; Figure 14.5: (left) Albert González Farran, UNAMID in Flickr,,, (right) Tristram Sparks, Addis Ababa Newsgroup in Flickr,; Figure 14.6: Leonora Enkling in Flickr,; Figure 14.7: Marie Stopes International/Susan Shulman,,; Figure 14.9: © 2009 Jon Warren/World Vision,

Figures 15.1 and 15.4: UNICEF Ethiopia in Flickr,,; Figure 15.2: Yesim Tozan,,,; Figure 15.3: Tesfay Alemseged; Figure 15.5: Janet Haresnape for The Open University; Figure 15.6: UNICEF/Indrias Getachew,,,,; Figure 15.7: © Ali Wyllie,,,; Table 15.1: Wossen Assefa ; Tables 15.2 and 15.3: © The Open University.

Every effort has been made to contact copyright owners. If any have been inadvertently overlooked the publishers will be pleased to make the necessary arrangements at the first opportunity.

Last modified: Tuesday, 23 August 2016, 11:20 PM