Self-Assessment Questions (SAQs)
Now you have completed this study session, you can assess how well you have achieved its Learning Outcomes by answering these questions.
The F diagram (Figure 1.3) shows how WASH provides different barriers at more than one point in the same transmission route. For example, there are two different barriers in the ‘fluids’ transmission route.
- Which of the three barriers will block faecal-oral disease transmission at the source? Briefly explain why.
- Give an example of a transmission route that could still occur if only the ‘sanitation’ and ‘safe water supply’ barriers are present.
- The barrier labelled sanitation (latrine) in the diagram will block faecal-oral disease transmission at the source. The origin of disease-causing germs is faeces. If faeces are safely disposed of then the risk of faecal contamination of water, food or the environment is minimised.
- ‘Faeces – Fingers – New host’ or ‘Faeces – Fingers – Food – New host’.
The benefit of improved WASH services to people is not limited to their health and well-being. It also has economic benefits at different levels. In what ways can an individual benefit economically from using improved WASH services?
An individual can benefit economically from improved WASH services because they will save money on treatment for diseases. Improving WASH services also minimises time away from work or productive activities due to sickness, caring for sick children and queuing at public toilets.
Briefly describe the main problems that non-unified WASH projects have faced.
The main problems facing non-unified WASH projects are:
- Many people in Ethiopia do not have access to improved WASH services. The scale of the problem makes it difficult for smaller projects to tackle. There has been an unequal spread of projects across the country and between different groups.
- Some projects did not recognise the importance of having all three elements of WASH, making improvements in one barrier less effective at preventing disease.
- Implementing successful WASH projects involves many different areas of government but they have not been organised to work together. This means that projects could be delayed, or fail, because of lack of coordination between the different areas of government.
- The effectiveness of WASH projects has also been reduced because different donors and aid organisations had separate and different financial procedures.
- Different approaches to projects in the same area can make them less effective; for example, communities may not want to contribute to a project if they have previously been given free services. Where free services have been given to a community, this has sometimes resulted in poor maintenance because they did not feel ownership of the service.
How does the motto ‘One Plan, One Budget, One Report’ reflect the main characteristics of the OWNP?
The motto of ‘One Plan, One Budget, One Report’ highlights the unified approach of the OWNP, which is in sharp contrast with previous fragmented and divided interventions.
- The OWNP brings together the government ministries and major donors involved in implementing WASH projects, and has a single plan unifying them all. This ensures that everyone is working together towards the same aims, helping to eliminate problems of unclear responsibilities, poor timing, or different approaches to projects, e.g. free services versus community input. It also means that all the agencies involved consider water, sanitation and hygiene together as a package.
- The OWNP has a unified fund, the Consolidated WASH Account, to reduce the waste of time and money through different financial and procurement procedures.
- The OWNP has a unified method of reporting changes, so that progress can be more easily and evenly tracked. This helps to ensure the equitable spread of services across the country and through different communities.
The motto provides a brief and memorable summary of these core elements of the OWNP.