Now that you have completed this study session, you can assess how well you have achieved its Learning Outcomes by answering these questions.
- Define what is meant by a policy, a strategy and a programme. Briefly describe how they relate to each other (look at Figure 2.5).
- What is ‘gender mainstreaming’? Suggest two possible benefits of gender mainstreaming in WASH projects.
- A policy is a high-level document (approved by the national government) that states overall purpose and guiding principles. A strategy gives more detailed goals and plans for implementing the policy. A programme is a plan for specific activities, projects or events to implement policies and strategies – for example outlining who, where and what will be done to achieve the strategy goals. Figure 2.5 shows that policies set general principles to guide strategies, strategies shape programmes by setting goals and general plans, and programmes in turn shape policies.
- Gender mainstreaming means to keep both men and women in the central focus or ‘mainstream’ of projects, involving them in all aspects and decisions throughout. In practice this means making sure that women are fully involved. There are many benefits you may have suggested. For example, in Ethiopia women and girls are often responsible for collecting water for the family, so involving them in projects allows them to keep ownership of the task and have control over what they will have to do in the future. It also means women will have the chance to shape projects that are suited to their specific needs, such as menstrual hygiene.
Look at the graph in Figure 2.2. It shows that the percentage of people with access to improved water in 2005 is 37%. Give three reasons why this might not match the percentage of people with improved water access in a particular town or village in May 2005.
The graph shows the national average for the year. The percentage of people with improved water access might differ from this in a particular town or village in May 2005 because:
- Water is not distributed evenly throughout the year – there are wet and dry seasons.
- Water is not distributed evenly geographically. Some areas of the country have much more water than others.
- There is a marked difference between access in urban and rural populations. Urban populations on average have much greater access to improved water, but they are more densely polluted so often natural resources such as rivers and streams are contaminated.
Section 2.2 covers the three policy areas related to WASH. For each area, name the main policy leading up to the OWNP and briefly give one way in which it reflects Article 90 of the Ethiopian Constitution.
The policy areas are water, health and environment. Article 90 of the constitution states that ‘policies shall, to the extent that resources permit, aim to provide all Ethiopians with access to health and education, clean water, housing, food and social security.’
- The main water policy is the Water Resources Management Policy (WRMP). It reflects Article 90 by (you only need to have included one of these):
- The main health policy is the Health Policy of the Transitional Government. It reflects Article 90 by:
- The main environment policy is the Environmental Policy of Ethiopia. It reflects Article 90 by:
For each of the following statements, decide if it applies to the Water Resources Management Policy (WRMP), Water Sector Strategy (WSS) or Water Sector Development Programme (WSDP). Bear in mind how they relate to each other.
- It has targets for actions in specific areas like hydropower.
- It contains general principles for the use of water nationwide.
- It prescribes actions to maximise agricultural irrigation, based on a more general objective to provide sustainable water supply and sanitation services.
- It is influenced by the goal to promote sustainable use of water resources across the country, and expands on how this should be done by giving more detailed aims and principles.
- It came first, but was shaped by the results of past actions and could be revised due to future actions.
Briefly describe two major national development plans. How have they influenced the goals of the OWNP?
The Growth and Transformation Plan (GTP) is a plan for national economic development and eradication of poverty. The Universal Access Plan (UAP) is a national plan for WASH improvements. They have influenced the goals of the OWNP because it has adopted similar targets to remain in line with these plans.