Self-Assessment Questions

Now that you have completed this study session, you can assess how well you have achieved its Learning Outcomes by answering these questions.

The table below shows information about two WASH projects:

Administration costs for supplying funding ETB 1,500 ETB 6,000
Cost of maintenance per household per year Affordable Unaffordable
Disabled access No Yes
Litres of clean water supplied daily per ETB 100 invested 550 200

Look at the definitions in Section 3.1. They explain some of the main criteria used to assess the desirability of WASH projects. Think about what information in the table here is relevant to each of the criteria. Which of the projects above shows the highest:

  1. efficiency?
  2. equity?
  3. transaction cost?
  4. sustainability?

Show answer

  1. Project One. It has a higher output (litres of water) for a given input (per ETB 100 invested)
  2. Project Two. It has disabled access.
  3. Project Two. It has higher administration costs for supplying the funding.
  4. Project One. It is more sustainable because the maintenance is affordable.

Is the following statement true or false? Explain your answer.

The OWNP was developed because the project-based aid approach was very efficient and successful, and initiatives that adopted a sector-wide approach, like the WIF, made things worse.

Show answer

False. The new development concept that shaped the OWNP is commonly known as a Sector-Wide Approach, which is sometimes shortened to SWAp. It is more successful, equitable and efficient than the project-based aid approach because all significant sector investments are channelled towards the same objectives and follow a consistent strategy that is guided by a consolidated investment plan. The OWNP was developed to build on the successes of sector-wide initiatives like the WIF.

Rewrite the paragraph below using terms from the list provided to fill the gaps.

accountability, baseline data, Memorandum of Understanding (MoU), Ministry of Finance and Economic Development (MoFED), National WASH Inventory (NWI), project-based aid approach, sector-wide approach, stakeholders, WASH Implementation Framework (WIF).

In 2003, an aid organisation from Europe sent workers to an Ethiopian village. The workers dug a well for the village, then went back to their home country. They did not coordinate the project with any government ministries. This is an example of a ……………… Because this is not a very efficient way of providing aid, in 2006 three government ministries signed the legally binding ………………, pledging that they would take a ……………… to WASH sector projects. This means that they agreed to work together to integrate the different elements of WASH, and involve all interested parties, which are known as ……………… A few years later some workers from the ……………… arrived in the village to record the WASH facilities. They needed to collect ……………… so that in the future the stakeholders would be able to tell if they had met their development targets. The workers found that the well had been contaminated from poor sanitation. Situations like this led to the creation of the ………………, so there were clearer plans for integrated WASH projects nationwide. These projects would require coordinated access to funding, so 2012 saw a new MoU, including the ……………… It outlined the areas of ……………… for each ministry, so everyone had definite responsibilities.

Show answer

In 2003, an aid organisation from Europe sent workers to an Ethiopian village. The workers dug a well for the village, then went back to their home country. They did not coordinate the project with any government ministries. This is an example of a project-based aid approach. Because this is not a very efficient way of providing aid, in 2006 three government ministries signed the legally binding Memorandum of Understanding (MoU), pledging that they would take a sector-wide approach to WASH sector projects. This means that they agreed to work together to integrate the different elements of WASH, and involve all interested parties, which are known as stakeholders. A few years later some workers from the National WASH Inventory (NWI) arrived in the village to record the WASH facilities. They needed to collect baseline data so that in the future the stakeholders would be able to tell if they had met their development targets. The workers found that the well had been contaminated from poor sanitation. Situations like this led to the creation of the WASH Implementation Framework (WIF), so there were clearer plans for integrated WASH projects nationwide. These projects would require coordinated access to funding, so 2012 saw a new MoU, including the Ministry of Finance and Economic Development (MoFED). It outlined the areas of accountability for each ministry, so everyone had definite responsibilities.

The United Nations WASH sector initiatives you have read about have a strong focus on equitable access to WASH facilities. Give an example of a national programme, other than the OWNP, that promotes equitable access and briefly explain how.

Show answer

The Health Extension Programme (HEP) reflects equitable access as it brings sanitation and hygiene education to rural communities – especially where this has been lacking.

Last modified: Saturday, 1 October 2016, 1:05 PM