In this study session we broaden the scope away from the detail of the OWNP and look at some wider themes in the WASH sector. In the history of WASH programmes in Ethiopia, there are some issues that affect both planning and implementation but which have not been given sufficient attention, and this has contributed to the inequalities in WASH services. However, in the past few years these issues have become part of the main agenda in sector meetings and forums which the OWNP has been designed to address. This study session describes these issues in the WASH sector and explains why they are important. You will also learn how they are incorporated in implementing the OWNP in Ethiopia.