Pastoral communities generally have limited access to water supply and consequently, improved sanitation and hygiene practices also tend to be poor. Pastoral communities (in Somali, Afar and parts of Tigray, Oromia and SNNPR regions) also require water for grazing their cattle and other animals. This means that, where hydrological and hydro-geological conditions permit, water supply schemes should be constructed close to pasture lands and along migration routes.
In areas with natural resource scarcity, there is a risk that water development may trigger underlying conflicts over land ownership and access to resources, especially during dry periods or droughts. The development of water supply schemes in pastoralist areas must be sensitive to these possible conflicts and pay particular attention to the timing and quality of community consultation at every stage of the project cycle.
Implementation in pastoral areas is similar to the approaches mentioned above for the rural WASH programme except that it requires closer coordination with schemes designed to respond to emergency WASH situations.