Self-Assessment Questions

Now that you have completed this study session, you can assess how well you have achieved its Learning Outcomes by answering these questions.

Fill in the gaps in the following sentences:

  1. A ……………… is a single combined plan for water supply, sanitation and hygiene schemes that integrates the separate plans from all WASH implementing organisations.
  2. ……………… are any activities that focus on knowledge, attitude and behavioural changes of the individual or the whole community.
  3. ……………… are the physical parts of a scheme such as well linings, pumps, latrine slabs, lavatory pans, construction materials etc.
  4. ……………… is the construction and use of small-scale water schemes at household level, such as hand-dug wells.
  5. ……………… is the identification of the sources and amounts of all possible funds for a project.

Show answer

  1. A consolidated WASH plan is a single combined plan for water supply, sanitation and hygiene schemes that integrates the separate plans from all WASH implementing organisations.
  2. Software components are any activities that focus on knowledge, attitude and behavioural changes of the individual or the whole community.
  3. Hardware components are the physical parts of a scheme such as well linings, pumps, latrine slabs, lavatory pans, construction materials, etc.
  4. Self-supply is the construction and use of small-scale water schemes at household level, such as hand-dug wells.
  5. Resource mapping is the identification of the sources and amounts of all possible funds for a project.

  1. Give a general definition for readiness criteria.
  2. Why are the readiness criteria for the OWNP particularly important in terms of the flow of resources?
  3. What sort of readiness criteria are expected to be in place for OWNP at city/town level?

Show answer

  1. Readiness criteria are conditions or things that need to exist or be done before starting an activity.
  2. The readiness criteria for the OWNP have particular significance because they are tied to the release of funds. There is a requirement that conditions set out in the readiness criteria have to be met before money is disbursed and physical implementation can take place.
  3. All cities and towns are expected to have prepared a consolidated annual WASH plan and had this approved. They have to establish the necessary organisational structure (e.g. Town Water Board) and have appropriate staff in place. They need to organise their financial systems so there are separate budget lines for water supply and sanitation. They need to ensure M&E staff and procedures are established and that National WASH Inventory data has been made available.

Listed in the table below are various approaches to implementing the OWNP. In the second column, write down if the approach is relevant to water, sanitation or hygiene, or more than one of these three. In the third column, identify whether the approach is used in rural, urban, pastoralist or institutional WASH.

Community-managed project
Sanitation marketing
Multi-village scheme
Grant financing
CLTSH
NGO-managed project

Show answer

Community-managed project water rural, pastoralist and institutional
Sanitation marketing sanitation rural (mostly) but also the others
Multi-village scheme water rural
Grant financing water, and also sanitation and hygiene urban
CLTSH sanitation and hygiene rural (mostly) but also the others
NGO-managed project water rural, pastoralist and institutional

What are the differences between the community-managed project (CMP) approach and the woreda-managed project (WMP) approach?

Show answer

In the CMP approach, communities are supported to undertake all stages of a project from initiation through planning to implementation and management continuing into the future. These projects use funds that are transferred to, and managed by, the community.

In the WMP approach, the Woreda WASH Team takes the lead. They are responsible for administering funds allocated to woreda, kebele or community for capital expenditure on water supply and sanitation activities. Although the kebele administration and WASHCOs are involved in project planning, implementation, monitoring and commissioning the project, the WWT is the Project Manager and is responsible for contracting, procurement, inspection, quality control and handover to the community.

Last modified: Wednesday, 24 August 2016, 4:53 AM