Results framework and key performance indicators
M&E is about measuring progress towards achieving the stated objectives of a programme. For the OWNP, the objectives are itemised in a results framework which sets out in detail the outputs, outcomes and impacts for each component of the Programme. A results framework is a compilation, usually in a diagram or table, of the expected results from a project or programme. It presents a summary picture of the main targets.
The OWNP results framework includes specific targets for the four components of the Programme. As an illustration, Table 13.2 is a small extract from the OWNP results framework that shows the target outputs for improved water supply for the three main components.
Table 13.2 Extract from the OWNP results framework showing the number of new facilities the Programme aims to provide. (OWNP, 2013)
|55,865 conventional and 42,529 self-supply water facilities constructed|
|20,010 water schemes rehabilitated|
|Improved functionality of water supplies|
|777 feasibility study and design reports prepared|
|777 water supply systems constructed/rehabilitated/expanded|
|22,342 primary and 643 secondary school improved water supply facilities provided|
|7772 water supply facilities constructed in health institutions|
The complete results framework has similarly precise targets for other intended outcomes of the Programme (see OWNP, pp.144–148).
Why is a results framework useful for M&E?
One of the purposes of M&E is for tracking progress towards meeting project targets so a results framework helps by clearly showing what those targets are.
The people and organisations responsible for monitoring use indicators to assess how well a project is doing and to what extent targets have been met. An indicator is something that can be seen or measured or counted, which provides evidence of progress towards a target. The terms ‘performance indicator’ or key performance indicator (KPI) are often used by organisations to describe the most important measures of their performance in terms of meeting their strategic and operational goals.
The OWNP has different KPIs for different aspects of the programme. There are KPIs for access to water, functionality of water supply schemes, water quality, access to sanitation, access to handwashing facilities, WASH provision in schools and health facilities, management, gender representation, equity, capital costs and O&M costs. To illustrate the KPIs, we have selected an extract from the OWNP Programme Operational Manual, reproduced in Table 13.3. This shows the data required at woreda or town/city level to assess one performance indicator for WASH provision in schools. The indicator is the percentage of schools with improved access to water supply with at least one tap for every 50 students.
Table 13.3 Performance indicator: ‘Percentage of schools with improved access to water supply – ratio of tap to student 1:50’. Data collection required at woreda and town/city level. (POM, 2014)
Procurement of contractor for:
School WASH facility construction that takes women, girls and disabled groups’ preferences into consideration
|Progress in the procurement process for each bid|
|Rehabilitation of water supply facilities and latrines at primary and secondary schools||Stages of construction: percentage completion of rehabilitation of WASH facility at primary and secondary schools for each contract|
|Construction of new water supply facilities and latrines at primary and secondary schools||Stages of construction:
%age completion of new construction of WASH facility at primary and secondary schools for each contract
|Output||Rehabilitated water supply facilities at primary and secondary schools||Number of schools with existing water supply facilities rehabilitated|
|New water supply facilities at primary and secondary schools||Number of schools with new water supply facilities|
|Outcome||Improved access to water supply in schools – ratio of tap to student of 1:50.||Number of schools having access to water supply with a tap to student ratio of 1:50.|
You should be aware that the extract in Table 13.3 is just a very small part of the full range of data collection required for monitoring of the OWNP implementation and progress towards meeting the targets. As you will realise from your study of this Module, the size and scale of the OWNP means that M&E of its progress and achievements will be a significant and continuing activity into the future.