Plans for rural water supply

Rural water supply plans in the OWNP are detailed and complex and clearly illustrate the size and scale of the Programme.

Rural water supply – new construction

Plans for new rural water schemes were developed using several different types and sources of data. In addition to the population and water source information mentioned above, they also considered the range of water supply technologies available, the number of people each could serve, and their service life (how many years each was expected to last). The type of scheme and number for each region depended on the size of geographical area, population and potential source of water. This complex process resulted in plans to create nearly 100,000 new rural water supply schemes across Ethiopia in order to achieve 100% access, of which more than 40,000 are self-supply schemes at household or community level.

Do you recall from Study Session 13, roughly how many of these planned new schemes for rural water supply are self-supply schemes?

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According to the extract from the results framework in Table 13.1, more than 42,000 self-supply water facilities are planned.

The regional distribution and the range of different technologies to be constructed are shown in Table 14.1. Table 14.2 shows how many people were expected to benefit from each of the potential technologies considered. You can see illustrations of a few of these technologies in Figure 14.1.

Table 14.1 New rural water supply facilities by region and type of scheme. (Note: The figures in columns and rows in this table do not add up to the totals shown but are as published in the OWNP document.) (OWNP, 2013)

Region Household-dug well
with rope pump
Community-dug well
with rope pump
Dug well with hand pump Capped spring Spring with piped system Shallow borehole
with hand pump
Shallow borehole
with submersible pump
Deep borehole
with piped scheme
Multi-village scheme Rainwater harvesting Cistern Hafir dam Total
Tigray 947 185 785 186 138 1 2242
Gambella 101 268 87 237 6 4 702
B. Gumuz 711 309 414 22 20 1,476
Dire Dawa 32 5 3 41
Harari 7 4 1 0 30 42
Somali 35 88 2 244 1397 879 2645
Amhara 7088 9479 8068 1724 17 2718 326 135 29,555
Afar 267 27 51 475 670 1491
SNNPR 1299 1955 4438 4588 143 2640 684 356 1467 17,571
Oromia 8724 13,959 9785 5145 51 3681 805 479 42,628
Total 17,034 25,495 24,217 12,037 211 10,781 2076 1275 4 2216 2067 879 98,393

Figure 14.1 Examples of water supply schemes from Tables 14.1 and 14.2.

Table 14.2 Estimated beneficiaries by type of scheme. (OWNP, 2013)

Household-dug well with rope pump 6
Community-dug well with rope pump 75
Dug well with hand pump 270
Capped spring 350
Spring with piped system 4000
Shallow borehole with hand pump 500
Shallow borehole with submersible pump 1500
Deep borehole with piped scheme 3500
Multi-village scheme 5000
Rainwater harvesting 100
Cistern 100
Hafir dam 500
Other 800

Based on the data in Tables 14.1 and 14.2, approximately how many people in the Harari region are expected to benefit from shallow boreholes with submersible pumps and how many from rainwater harvesting schemes?

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In the Harari region, the estimates are that 4 shallow boreholes with submersible pumps will serve 4 × 1500 = 3000 people and 30 rainwater harvesting schemes will serve 30 × 100 = 3000 people.

Rural water supply - rehabilitation

Rehabilitation means restoring a non-functional water scheme to an efficient working condition by repair or construction methods. The reasons for the non-functionality of water schemes include poor selection of site, poor design and construction, and poor operation systems. Figure 14.2 shows an example of a water scheme in need of rehabilitation. The OWNP plans to rehabilitate 20,010 non-functional water supply schemes in order to achieve the target of reducing non-functionality to 10% of the total number of schemes.

If a rural water scheme managed under the CMP approach becomes non-functional, who is responsible for repairing it?

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As a community-managed project, the WASHCO would be responsible for maintaining and repairing the scheme in collaboration with the Woreda WASH Team.

Figure 14.2 A non-functional hand-dug well. Only 2000 birr was needed to repair the pump.

Rural water supply – financial requirement

In the list of six planning questions that you read in Section 14.1, the last is ‘how much?’ Estimates for the financial requirement included programme management, study and design, post-construction support, capacity building, water quality monitoring, catchment management, and environmental safeguards were all determined, in addition to construction and rehabilitation of water supplies for households, schools and facilities. For rural water supply, the financial requirement was estimated at a total of more than US$ 1.13 billion.

Last modified: Wednesday, 24 August 2016, 5:17 PM