Now that you have completed this study session, you can assess how well you have achieved its Learning Outcomes by answering these questions.
Fill in the gaps in the following sentences:
- Urbanisation is the increase in the ………………, relative to rural areas.
- ……………… means reducing the negative effects of some undesirable event or situation.
- Urban population is the ……………… of the total population resident in ……………… areas.
- ……………… is the long-term variation in the global climate, largely attributed to human activities, especially the production of ……………… gases.
- The presence or release into the environment of any substance that can cause harm is known as ………………
- Urbanisation is the increase in the number of people living in towns and cities relative to rural areas.
- Mitigation means reducing the negative effects of some undesirable event or situation.
- Urban population is the percentage of the total population resident in urban areas.
- Climate change is the long-term variation in global climate largely attributed to human activities, especially the production of greenhouse gases.
- The presence or release into the environment of any substance that can cause harm is known as pollution.
Identify the main ways in which GTP II will affect WASH and the OWNP.
The water supply service level standards in GTP II are higher than they were when the OWNP was planned. This means that more water per person is required closer to their homes in order to meet the requirements for minimum service level. GTP II also aims to improve water supply infrastructure to the level of middle-income countries and establish new urban wastewater management systems.
In the context of WASH, explain why simply building more houses is not a sustainable solution for urbanisation.
Rapid construction without adequate planning procedures can mean that buildings are erected without having the necessary infrastructure in place, i.e. water supply and sanitation may not be part of the construction or may be inadequate or delayed. Poorly designed buildings can be short-term solutions to meet the pressing need for more housing but these will not be sustainable.
The leather industry is one of the key industries in Ethiopia, and traditionally the main leather-related export has been hides and skins. The government has been driving the leather industry to focus instead on producing high-value finished leather products, for example shoes and handbags, encouraging the evolution from a traditional industry to a modern industry that functions within a global high-value market.
- In terms of social and national change, this is an example of what?
- Identify one possible advantage of this development, and one possible disadvantage.
- Advantages could include alleviating poverty, providing improved physical infrastructure and generating opportunities for employment. Disadvantages could include increased pollution for both the environment and the water supply.
- Why is it difficult to plan for climate change?
- The EPA is developing national plans for a climate-resilient economy. What does this mean?
- The greatest problem about climate change is the level of uncertainty about the future, which makes it very difficult to prepare strategic plans for the longer term.
- A climate-resilient economy is an economy designed to withstand the possible negative impacts of extreme weather events and long-term climate trends so that the well-being of the people and the national economy are not damaged.
Which of the following statements is false? In each case explain why it is incorrect.
- Water quality was not an indicator in the WASH-related MDG.
- Ethiopia has met its aim to halve, by the end of 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation.
- The targets within the new WASH-related SDGs specify women and girls as needing particular support in achieving access to adequate and equitable sanitation and hygiene for all.
- The OWNP is more ambitious than the SDGs, aiming to reach a target of 100% access to water and sanitation ten years sooner than the SDGs.
- The target date for the SDGs is 2035.
2 is false. Ethiopia has reached the goal for water supply but not for sanitation.
5 is false. The target year is 2030.