This Module, Ethiopia’s One WASH National Programme, was prepared by a team of Ethiopian authors with support from experts in blended learning pedagogy at The Open University UK. It was first published in 2016. 

The contributors of original material are:

Muhammed Ebrahim, Federal Ministry of Water, Irrigation and Energy

Mesfin Getachew, Federal Ministry of Health

Abera Endeshaw, WaterAid Ethiopia

The Academic Editor of Ethiopia’s One WASH National Programme was Pam Furniss, Senior Lecturer in Environmental Systems in the Faculty of Mathematics, Computing and Technology, The Open University UK.

Additional thanks to:

Michele Paba, Urban WASH Specialist, UNICEF Ethiopia

Rahel Kaba, Urban WASH Specialist, UNICEF Ethiopia

Tamene Gossa, Urban WASH Specialist, UNICEF Ethiopia

Dr Sam Godfrey, Chief of WASH, UNICEF Ethiopia

Dereje Alemu, WASH Operations Director, World Vision Ethiopia

Felipe Chaparro, Team Leader Urban WASH Project, World Vision Ethiopia

Nicholas Owuor, Team Leader Urban WASH Project, World Vision Ethiopia

Ellen Scott, OpenWASH Project Manager

Gail Vardy, OpenWASH Project Coordinator

Hannah Juma, OpenWASH Curriculum Manager

This Module should be cited as follows:

OpenWASH (2016) Ethiopia’s One WASH National Programme, The Open University UK/World Vision Ethiopia/UNICEF.

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated below, this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike licence ( The material acknowledged below is Proprietary and used under licence for this project, and not subject to the Creative Commons Licence. This means that this material may only be used unadapted within the OpenWASH project and not in any subsequent OER versions.

We have used some images of products for illustrative purposes only. The Open University is not endorsing or recommending such branded products but illustrating what may be available and what they achieve. There are other brands available other than those illustrated.

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce the material in this unit:

Cover image: © UNICEF Ethiopia/2011/Getachew/Flickr made available under

Figure 1.1: © WHO/UNICEF; Figure 1.2: © The Open University; Figure 1.3: (redrawn); Figure 1.4: (left) © UNICEF Ethiopia/2013/Ose/Flickr made available under (right) © Save the Children USA Ethiopia Country Livelihood Office,; Figures 1.5 and 1.6: WHO/UNICEF (2010); Figure 1.7: One WASH National Programme; Figure 1.8: Pam Furniss.

Figure 2.1: ©; Figure 2.2: © The Open University; Figure 2.3: Pam Furniss; Figure 2.4: © EU/ECHO/Martin Karimi/Flickr made available under; Figure 2.6: adapted from MoH, 2005; Figure 2.7: © UNICEF Ethiopia/2012/Getachew/Flickr made available under; Figure 2.8: adapted from Millennium Project, 2000.

Figure 3.1: The World Bank authorises the use of this material subject to the terms and conditions on its website,; Figure 3.2: Pam Furniss; Figure 3.3: Ashitaka San/Flickr; Figure 3.6: UNICEF Ethiopia,

Figure 4.1:; Figure 4.2: adapted from; Figure 4.3: Dr Beth Cullen; Figure 4.4:

Figure 5.1: adapted from MoH, 2011; Figure 5.2:; Figure 5.3: (left), (right)

Figure 6.1: Mesfin Getachew; Figure 6.2: Practica Foundation,; Figure 6.3: drawing by Peter Morgan in; Figure 6.4: Pam Furniss; Figure 6.5: adapted from PFE, n.d.; Figure 6.6: Nassef and Belayhun, 2012; Figure 6.7: adapted from; Figure 6.8: UNICEF Ethiopia,

Figure 7.1:adapted from FDRE, 2011, FDRE, 2013a and FDRE, 2014; Figure 7.2: Muhammed Ebrahim; Figures 7.3, 7.4, 7.6 and 7.7: adapted from Muhammed Ebrahim by The Open University; Figure 7.5: COWASH/Benti Ejeta.

Figure 8.1: adapted from; Figures 8.2 and 8.3: WaterAid/Behailu Shiferaw,; Figure 8.4: Mesfin Getachew; Figure 8.5: adapted from WaterAid, 2013; Figure 8.6: WaterAid/Guilhem Alandry,; Figure 8.7: (a) SuSanA Secretariat/Flickr,, (b) WaterAid/Mahlet Mairegu,

Figure 9.1: from Nassef and Belayhun, 2012,; Figure 9.2: UNICEF Ethiopia/Flickr made available under; Figure 9.3: (a) Digital Media Centre World Vision,, (b) Pam Furniss; Figure 9.4:

Figure 10.1: COWASH; Figure 10.2: WaterAid/Abera Endeshaw,; Figure 10.3: © The Open University; Figure 10.4: Pam Furniss; Figure 10.5: Mesfin Getachew; Figures 10.6 and 10.7: Mulugeta Chernet; Figure 10.8: UNICEF Ethiopia/Flickr,; Figure 10.9: © 2014 World Vision, photo by Jon Warren,

Figures 11.1 and 11.4: Pam Furniss; Figures 11.2 and 11.5: WaterAid/Abera Endeshaw,; Figure 11.3: NWCO, 2014; Figure 11.6: WaterAid/Mesay Birhanu,; Table 11.1: FDRE, 2012.

Figure 12.1: WaterAid/Behailu Shiferaw,; Figure 12.2: Pam Furniss; Figure 12.3: UNICEF Ethiopia,; Figure 12.4: adapted from FDRE, 2013a; Figure 12.5: FDRE, 2011; Figure 12.6: FDRE, 2014.

Figure 13.1: WaterAid/Abera Endeshaw,; Figure 13.2: UNICEF Ethiopia/Flickr,,; Figure 13.3: Julie Smith (illustrator), © International Federation of Red Cross and Crescent Societies,; Figure 13.4: FDRE, 2013c; Figure 13.5: UNICEF Ethiopia,,; Tables 13.1 and 13.2: FDRE, 2013a; Table 13.3: FDRE, 2014.

Figure 14.1: (a) Kris Fricke/Flickr,, (b) Ryans Well Foundation/Flickr,, (c) Mesfin Getachew, (d) Pam Furniss; Figure 14.2: Tesfaye, 2012; Figure 14.3: Mesfin Getachew; Figure 14.4: FDRE, 2011; Figure 14.5: FDRE, 2013a; Figure 14.6: © Jon Warren/World Vision (2013),; Table 14.1: FDRE, 2013a; Tables 14.2 and 14.3: adapted from FDRE, 2013a.

Figures 15.1 and 15.5: © The Open University; Figure 15.2: adapted from; Figure 15.3: Basiro Davey; Figure 15.4: © Magnus Franklin/Flickr,; Figure 15.6: CIFOR/Flickr,; Figure 15.7: UNICEF Ethiopia/Flickr,,; Table: 15.1: MoWIE, 2015; Table 15.2: CRGE Vision, EPA (n.d.).

Every effort has been made to contact copyright owners. If any have been inadvertently overlooked the publishers will be pleased to make the necessary arrangements at the first opportunity.

Last modified: Tuesday, 23 August 2016, 11:29 PM