Early warning system

A system to generate and disseminate timely and meaningful information to people threatened by hazards (12)


Branch of science concerned with studying ecosystems and the relationships between organisms (micro-organisms, plants, animals and people) and between them and their environment (8)

Economic development

Broader concept than economic growth that also includes aspects of human welfare (3)

Economic growth

Increase in worth of a national economy, usually measured by gross domestic product (gdp) (3)


Living organisms and their physical environment and the interactions between them (1)

Ecosystem services

Benefits that people obtain from ecosystems e.g. the provision of drinking water and food (12)

El niño

Climate pattern caused by unusually warm temperatures in the pacific ocean (10)

Environmental impact assessment (EIA)

Process that aims to prevent damage from developments by identifying potential impacts and mitigating their effects (14)


Build up of nutrients in surface waters such as river and lakes, causing excessive plant growth (8)


Change of physical state from liquid to gas (4)


Electronic equipment that has been thrown away (1)


Unprotected; a set of conditions that facilitates the entrance of a pollutant or contaminant to the human body (8)

Extreme weather events

Periods of weather outside the normal range of weather conditions (10)

Faecal-oral transmission

Transmission route of many diseases in which people are infected when they ingest pathogens from faeces through the mouth (8)

Flash floods

Floods that happen due to intense rainfall in a localised area and usually drain away quite quickly (10)

Food security

When all people at all times have physical and economic access to adequate, safe, and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs for an active and healthy life (2)

Fossil fuels

Fuels such as oil, coal and natural gas that are formed over millions of years by natural processes from decayed plants and animals (1)


Water with a dissolved salt concentration of less than 1% (4)

Last modified: Sunday, 2 October 2016, 11:34 AM