Summary

In study session II you have learnt
  • An ideal anesthetic technique would incorporate optimal patient safety and satisfaction, provide excellent operating conditions for the surgeon, allow rapid recovery, and avoid postoperative side effects.
  • Before starting anesthesia; check that you have the correct patient scheduled for the correct operation on the correct side, measure the patient's pulse and blood pressure, try to make patient relaxed and comfortable as possible and make sure the anesthetic and emergency drugs and equipment checked and functional .
  • General anesthesia may be initiated by the administration of intravenous or intramuscular drugs and inhalation of a volatile anesthetic. Vigilance is essential during the administration of anesthesia (general/ regional).
  • General anesthetic techniques include mask anesthesia, general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation, total intravenous anesthesia, monitored anesthesia technique and balanced anesthesia.
  • Four main stages of general anesthesia are recognized regardless of the method in which the anesthesia is delivered. These stages are based upon the patient's body movements, respiratory rhythm, oculomotor reflexes, and muscle tone. These stages may not be maintained if we are using intravenous agent and muscle relaxant. The first stage is amnesia and analgesia stage followed by delirium stage which starts with the loss of consciousness. The third stage is the surgical anesthesia stage with four levels at which different types of surgery can be performed. The fourth stage is anesthetic overdose which lead to cardiac arrest, we have to monitor and reverse before the patient reach to this stage.
  • Anesthesia (general/regional) care are performed in steps starting by preoperative evaluation, anesthesia plan and premedication which helps to get pertinent information about the patient, optimize patient health and prepare appropriate anesthesia. Second step of general anesthesia is induction (initiation) and securing the air way followed by maintenance of anesthesia which is optimum for the procedure. The fourth step is the emergence and recovery phase it is the phase to awake or easily arousable. Emergence from general anesthesia should ideally be smooth and gradual awakening in a controlled environment. Complication arise in the post anesthetic period should be addressed accordingly in recovery room until full recovery of consciousness and complications are managed.
  • Regional anesthesia techniques include spinal anesthesia, epidural anesthesia, topical anesthesia, infiltration, field block anesthesia and nerve block anesthesia.
Last modified: Thursday, 20 October 2016, 2:19 PM