Complication, Manifestation and Management

Complication, Manifestation and Management

Table8.2 Complication, Manifestation and Management of IV Therapy

Complication Manifestation Management
Infiltration of IV Solution
  • Infusion rate slows or stops completely.
  • Swelling, hardness, and pain around the needle site.
  • A feeling of coldness around the injection site.
  • When the bottle is lowered below the level of the needle, blood fails to return into the tubing (it can also be a sign of hypotension)
  • Immediately stops the infusion.
  • Elevate the arm and apply warm towels to the swollen area to aid absorption and reduce discomfort
  • If necessary, restart the infusion at another site.
Obstructions caused by a clot forming over the needle lumen, particulate matter clogging the filters, the lumen of the needle being positioned against the wall of the vein, kinking or pressure on the tubing, or a position of the arm that occludes the vessel proximal to the IV site Decrease in flow rate or the complete cessation of fluid flow.
  • Locate the source of the obstruction and correct it.
  • Flushing of a vascular device is performed to ensure patency and prevent the mixing of incompatible medications or solutions
Thrombophlebitis
  • Pain along the vein
  • Area of redness and swelling around the affected vein
  • Stop infusion.
  • If necessary, restart the infusion at another site.
  • Apply warm moist compresses.
  • Do not massage or rub the affected limb.
  • Consult senior
Pyrogenic reaction
  • Symptoms generally appear 30 minutes after the injection is started.
  • Temperature elevation and chills.
  • Headache.
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Circulatory collapse.
  • Immediately stop infusion.
  • Check vital signs.
  • Notify physician.
  • Save IV solution so that it can be examined for pathogens.
  • Do not give any solution that is cloudy.
Air embolism The main problem here is sudden vascular collapse due to occlusion of vessel by embolism. As a result, tissues which are normally supplied with blood by the involved vessel will not receive adequate oxygen. Signs are cyanosis, low blood pressure, tachycardia, and a rise in venous pressure.
  • Inform the physician
  • Check vital signs.
  • Administer oxygen.
  • To prevent this complication: Make certain that air does not enter the IV line.
Drug reactions
  • Cardiac arrhythmias.
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting.
  • Rashes.
  • Renal failure
  • Anaphylactic shock.
  • Slow or stop the infusion, depending upon the severity of the symptoms.
  • Check the vital signs, neurologic and pulmonary functions.
  • Notify physician.
Last modified: Wednesday, 16 November 2016, 5:27 PM