Pediatric patients are not small adults. Neonates (0-1 months), infants (1-12 months), toddlers (1-3 years), and small children (4-12 years of age) have differing anesthetic requirements. Safe anesthetic management depends on full appreciation of the physiological, anatomic, and pharmacological characteristics of each group. These characteristics, which differentiate them from each other and adults, necessitate modification of anesthetic equipment and techniques. Indeed infants are at much greater risk of anesthetic morbidity and mortality than are older children; risk is generally inversely proportional to age, neonates being at highest risk. In addition, pediatric patients are prone to illnesses that require unique surgical and anesthetic strategies. In previous study session VI you have learned about the techniques of resuscitation of new borns. In this study session you will learn about the anatomical, physiological, pharmacological, psychological, pathological differences between adults and children. You will also learn about anaesthetic equipment used in paediatric anaesthesia and the anaesthesia management for pediatric clients.