Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) are major global health concerns. The first case of HIV in Ethiopia was reported in 1984. Since then, HIV/AIDS has become a major public health concern, leading the Government of Ethiopia to declare a public health emergency in 2002. In 2011, adult HIV/AIDS prevalence in Ethiopia was estimated at 1.5 percent. Approximately 1.2 million Ethiopians were living with HIV/AIDS in 2010. Recent evidence confirms that expanded access to ART is reducing AIDS mortality rates in Ethiopia. The overall adult ART coverage is estimated at 86 percent. HIV infected patients will require surgery during the time of their illness, it is important for anesthetists to understand the implications of anaesthesia in the HIV infected patient. In this session you will learn to adopt knowledge, skill and appropriate attitude in the management of anesthesia for HIV infected people. This requires a basic understanding of HIV infection itself, the clinical symptoms and organ involvement in HIV infection, the pharmacology of antiretroviral agents (ARVs), which helps to formulate a plan and implement for anesthetizing the HIV infected patient.