HIV/AIDS and Transmission

HIV/AIDS and Transmission

The human immunodeficiency viruses, HIV-l and HIV-2, Virus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome, are retroviruses that attach to cells with CD4+ surface antigen (predominantly helper T lymphocytes) and ultimately replicate by integrating virally produced deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) into the nucleus of the host cell. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is an advanced stage of HIV in which many life threatening infection will occur because the body becomes incompetent to resist infection. Retrovirus is a family of ribonucleic acid (RNA) viruses containing a reverse transcriptase enzyme which allows the viruses' genetic information to become part of the genetic information of the host cell upon replication (the process in the division of a cell, where the DNA makes copies of itself)

HIV infection can be transmitted through:

  • Unprotected sexual intercourse with an infected partner
  • Injection or transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products.
  • Sharing unsterilized injection equipment that has been previously used by someone who is infected.
  • Materno-fetal transmission (during pregnancy, at birth, and through breastfeeding).
Last modified: Sunday, 20 November 2016, 4:02 PM