Efficient resource utilization
Efficient Resource Utilization
It refers the mechanism of raising resource for health care service this resource includes human resources (e.g., anesthetist), finance, medical equipment and materials. Those resources are scarce and you have to use them in their effective needs for intended purpose in order to get best out comes.
People are the most important resource of any organization. Without people there is no organization. There are several resources that we use and supposed to manage in any organization. Of these, managing people is much more complex task as compared with managing other things because people have feeling and other features.
Staffing and Duty scheduling
A. Staffing is the process of determining and providing the acceptable number and mix of health such as anesthesia personnel to produce a desired level of care to meet the patient's demand.
Purpose: to provide each unit with an appropriate and acceptable number of workers in each category to perform the nursing tasks required.
Factors affecting staffing
- The type, philosophy and objectives f the hospital and the nursing service
- The number of patients and severity of their illness-knowledge and ability of nursing personnel are matched with the actual care needs of patients
- Availability and characteristics of the nursing staff, including education, level of preparation, mix of personnel, number and position:
- Administrative policies such as rotation, weekends and holiday off-duties
- Standards of care desired which should be available and clearly spelled out.
- Teaching program or the extent of staff involvement in teaching activities
- Expected hours of work per annum of each employee. This is influenced by the 40-hr week law; and
- Patterns of work schedule-traditional 5 days per week, 8 hours per day; 4 days a week, ten hours per day and three days off; or 3 ½ days of 12 hours per day and 3 ½ days off per week.
B. Scheduling Basics
The goal of employee scheduling is to put the right employees on the right jobs at the right times to meet your business demands. Regardless of the industry, the employee scheduling process consists of four essentially universal phases:
- Determining workload and coverage requirements, including special skills or certifications
- Designing a scheduling framework to meet demands
- Building employee work schedules from the framework
- Publishing, monitoring and adjusting work schedules as required
Doing these tasks by hand is very time consuming and difficult due to workload fluctuations, frequent special requests from employees, last minute changes, and high employee turnover.In addition, the schedule often needs to be changed when scheduled employees call in sick or are unavailable to work. Without the right tools in place, you will expend a great deal of time on these tasks - time better spent on more critical, revenue-generating activities
Material / Equipment Management
Material management is the integrated functioning of purchasing and allied activities so as to achieve the maximum coordination and optimum expenditure in the area of materials.
One of the objectives of material management is to have the right materials at the right place at the right time. This depends on effective policies of forecasting, inventory, and material distribution. Materials/equipments can be divided in to:-
- Expenditure / consumable / recurrent: - are materials that should be regularly kept in stock for production purposes or maintenance of the plant and are used within a short time eg. Cotton, laboratory stains paper/syringe raw materials etc
- Non-expendable /capital/ or non-recurrent materials are materials required only for specific purposes or jobs which are not to be automatically recouped and lasts for several years and needs care and maintenance .eg anaesthesia machine, microscope capital equipments etc.
The Following Activities Are Generally Needed Within Materials Management
1. Ordering equipments: is obtaining equipment from stores or shops. Only some people are authorized to order. And ordering requires the following skills :
- Listing requirements from past use and estimates of present use. Some resources are always limited, consumable items should be used economically.
- Balancing requirements with available resources and making cost estimate. Priorities must therefore be established among needs and the needs must be balanced against resources ( available funds).cost estimate must be made before completing the order -form .to make a cost -estimate ,the items required ,the quantity, price per unit , and total price should be listed in tabular form.
- Use of catalogue; - it is book that contains a list of articles available for purchasing from a certain place. it is used whenever things are ordered at a distance the disadvantage of purchasing from a catalogue is that the purchaser does not see the articles being ordered. Therefore, the catalogue be studied with great care and the exact item number, description, and price carefully noted
- Completing an order -form/requisition form An order- form has a column for each of the following: item reference number, name of article, quantity ordered, price per unit , total price .
An example of an ordering form is shown on the following table.
It is the purchasing of raw materials, components, and services that the organization needs to achieve its goal. The function of the purchase section is to produce materials against purchase requisitions received from stock control or other department. It keeps record of the resources of supply of various items .price of several items are negotiated and predetermined but for others tenders are invited .this section has also to be ensure that materials do arrive at the right time.
The purchase procedure
- The unit needing the item initiates a requisition
- The purchasing department reviews the requisition.
- Suppliers are selected.
- An order is placed.
- The order is monitored to determine if goods have been on line and will be delivered as anticipated.
- The income /materials is received ,inspected, and accepted
Any functional area of the firm can initiate a purchase requestion. It usually includes the name, and description of the item wanted, the quantity desired, the signature of the one who prepared it. The purchasing agent reviews the requestion to determine if another item costing less can be substituted. They can make alternatives, but they can not make unauthorized changes.
3. Storing Equipment
Store keeping is the function of receiving, storing and issuing materials in the stores materials are properly stored until drawn by the various using departments. Materials are equivalent to money and great attention has to be paid to the proper storage so that they are free from damage and pilferage .the store also maintain a set of records called bin cards. The accuracy of bin card balance and physical balance is verified from time to time by accountant staff or internal Auditors. It is also the responsibility of this section to send a report when an item is exhausted or if shortage of an item exists.
Materials Equipments Are Stored in Two Places
- A main or reserve store where stocks are kept but not used.
- The place of use, after issue
To store equipment, the following skills are necessary
- Recording the receipt of new articles and the issue of articles
- Keeping a stock -book or ledger in balance
Every time an item is delivered, the quantity received is added to the total in stock and an item is issued , the quantity is subtracted from the total stock "the resulting number is the balance stock".
A sample of balanced sheet is illustrated in the following Table.
4. Issuing Equipment
After equipment has been ordered, received and recorded in the stock-book or ledger, it is issued for use when it is needed .three paper work procedures are involved in issuing equipment.
a. Ledger Record
Unless issues are recorded in the stock ledger and the balance of stock remaining is calculated .it is very difficult to know when to order more stock.
b. Issue Voucher
The issue voucher is an official form on which are recorded
- Data of issue
- What is issued in what quantity
- Where it is to be used (section)
- Who is responsible
- Signature of person responsible for its use. Issue vouchers must be field and kept in the store. Duplicating copies are given to the department that receives the equipment.
An inventory is a list of items that are kept in a certain place. Each section should have an inventory record for the items received and used.
6. Controlling and Maintaining Equipment
Expendable equipment must be controlled to avoid wastage. Non -expandable equipment must be maintained, i.e. kept in good working condition.
Most leading causes of morbidity and mortality can be treated, prevented or at least alleviated with cost -effective drugs.
Managing drug supply is concerned with practical ways in which government policy-makers, essential drug program managers, non-governmental organizations, donors and others can work to ensure that high -quality essential rugs are available, affordable, and used rationally.
Drugs are particularly important because they can save lives and improve health, and they promote trust and participation in health services. They are costly expensive wasting/misusing drugs cause a shortage of supply. Drugs are powerful must be used with skill, knowledge and accuracy, otherwise they are dangerous.
Drug Management Cycle / the Logistic Cycle
Drug management cycle or the logistic cycle involves four basic functions:
A. Selection- involves reviewing the prevalent health problems, identifying treatments of choice. Choosing individual drugs and dosage forms, and deciding which drug will be available at each level of health care.
B. Procurement: includes quantifying drug requirements selecting procurement method, managing tenders, establishing contract terms, assuring drug quality and ensuring adherence to contract terms. Procurement cycle involves the following steps .
- Reviewing drug selection
- Determine quantities needed
- Reconcile needs and find
- Choosing procurement method
- Locate and select suppliers
- Specific contract term
- Monitor border status
- Receive and cheek drugs
- Make payment
- Distribute drugs
- Collect consumption information
C. Distribution: it includes clearing customs, stock control, stors management and delivery to drug deposited and health facilities. Effective drug distribution relies on good system design and good management
D. Use: this includes diagnosing, prescribing distributing and proper consumption by patient.
Purpose of Drug Management; Is to Use Drugs Wisely and Avoid Wasting Them
The Common Reasons for Drug Wastage Include
- Using too many different drugs on one patient.
- Using expensive ,brand-name drugs when cheaper standard drug of certified quality would be equally effective and safe
- Using a large dose than necessary
- Giving drugs to patients who have no faith in them and who throw them away or forget to take them.
- Ordering more drugs than are needed, so that some are retained beyond their expiry date.
- Not maintaining the refrigerator, so that vaccines and drugs become ineffective.
- Exposing drugs to damp heat/light
- Using (form store) too many drugs at one time so that they are used extravagantly or even stolen.