Communication is the art of developing and attaining understanding between people. It is the process of exchanging information and feeling between two or more people, and it is essential to effective management. Most people think at a rate of 400 to 500 words a minute, but most people speak at only about 120 words a minute. Communicating is one of the most important facilitators of managerial activities. In general communication is the passing of information. Without proper communication in the organization, it would be difficult to be successful. We communicate daily with our family, friends, bosses and clients etc.
Communication is the process of sharing our ideas, thoughts, and feelings with other people and having those ideas, thoughts, and feelings understood by the people we are communicating with. When we communicate we speak, listen, and observe. The way we communicate is a learned style. As children we learn from watching our parents and other adults communicate. As an adult we can learn to improve the way we communicate by observing others who communicate effectively, learning new skills, and practicing those skills.
Sender: the initiator of communication
Encoding: the translation of information into a series of symbols for communication
Channel: the formal medium of communication between a sender and receiver.
Decoding: the translation of information of a message into meaningful information
Barriers to Communication or Problems of Communication
- Noise - is anything that confuses, disturbs, diminishes or interfere with communication e.g a machine operation etc.
- Missing information
- Alteration of information(occurs when the communicator sends information through a third party)
- Overloading (when an increased in the number of messages to be sent, or too much information by the teacher in one day)
- Lack of attention
- Lack of confidence over the communicator(if students lack confidence on one of their teacher, a nurse or kebele leader)
- Lack of time
Types of Communication
Communication types can be classified on the following basis:
- On the Basis of Organizational Relationship
- Formal communication (through proper channel) in accordance with formalities (referenced office letter)
- Informal communication(information is passed not in accordance with any formalities and rules and regulations of an organization
- On the Basis of Direction of Flow of Communication
- Downward communication (a communication starts from the top level executives and end with the lower functionaries through middle management E.g. Prime minister Meles to Minister of health)
- Upward communication (just the opposite of downward communication)
- Horizontal communication (information passed to a person who is at equal level, e.g. your friend)
- On the Basis of Way of Expression
- Oral communication e.g. lectures meeting, calling etc.
- Written communication (Circulars, this manual etc.)