Complications of shoulder presentation
- Cord prolapse
- Trauma to a prolapsed arm
- Obstructed labour and ruptured uterus
- Fetal hypoxia and death.
Remember that a shoulder presentation means the baby cannot be born through the vagina; if you detect it in a woman who is already in labour, refer her urgently to a higher health facility.
In all cases of malpresentation or malposition, do not attempt to turn the baby with your hands! Only a specially trained doctor or midwife should attempt this. Refer the mother so she and her baby can get emergency obstetric care.